Small words
The words in this list have idiomatic (conversational) rather than grammatical functions.
They are used to convey subtle emotive meanings and situational nuances. Most of them have no exact English equivalents.

Think of the subtle change in meaning between:
a) He's a boy
b) He's just a boy

a) Your Swedish is excellent
b) But your Swedish is excellent

ju
Is used to convey a sense of obviousness (equivalent to as you know)
A: John uppför sig som en idiot igen.
B: Han är ju inte så skarp.
A: John is behaving like an idiot again.
B: Well, he isn't too sharp (a universal fact, known to everyone)
A: Din bil är så snabb!
B: Den är ju en Ferrari.
A: Your car is so fast!
B: Well, it is a Ferrari.
A: Michael Jacksons är i alla medierna.
B: Han var ju superstjärna.
A: Michael Jackson's death is all over the media.
B: Well, he was a superstar.
It is also used to emphasize meaning (surely, of course, but)
A: Den kostar 2000 kronor.
B: Det kan ju inte stämma!
A: It costs 2000 crowns.
B: That can't be right! (surely you'll agree)
A: Ven är USA:s president?
B: Det är ju Donald Trump.
A: Who is the president of the USA?
B: It is Donald Trump, of course (everyone knows that - with a mild implication of surprise that the questioner doesn't know)
This shouldn't be confused with the jo used in negative questions
A: Vill du ha kaffe?
B: Ja
A: Vill du inte ha kaffe?
B: Jo
A: Do you want a coffee?
B: Yes.
A: Don't you want a coffee?
B: Yes (I do)

A: Har du en bil?
B: Ja
A: Har du ingen bil?
B: Jo

A: Do you have a car?
B: Yes.
A: Don't you have a car?
B: Yes (I do)
If you say yes to a negative question in English, you'll have to clarify a bit. Jo in Swedish has a very clear meaning.

väl
Indicates that the speaker is just guessing, and is open to correction
A: Du är väl törstig?
B: Det är jag verkligen!
A: You must be thirsty.
B: Indeed I am!
A: Var är Christoffer?
B: Han är väl i skolan.
A: Where is Christoffer?
B: He should be in school, right?
A: Varför kommer han inte?
B: Tåget är väl försenat.
A: Why's he not coming?
B: The train must be late.
säkert
It is similar to I'm sure that ... or surely
Provet blir säkert inte så svårt.. I'm sure the test will probably not be too hard
Det är säkert svårt att överleva i jungeln ensam. It's surely hard to survive in the jungle by oneself
nog
Similar to säkert, but with a bit more certainty or optimism. Closer to probably or I would guess
A: Varför tar han så lång tid?
B: Han kommer nog snart.
A: Why is he taking so long?
B: He'll (probably) be here soon.
A: När ska vi öppna våra julklappar?
B: Vi kommer nog göra det efter middagen.
A: When are we going to open our Christmas presents?
B: I'd guess we'll do it after the dinner.
visst
Is used to say that you're mostly sure of something want to ask for confirmation. When used for this, visst comes first in the sentence followed by inverted word order.
Visst spelade du fotboll som barn? You played football as a child, right?
Visst var det han som sa det? It was him who said it, right?
It can also imply As I'm sure you've also heard ... It's similar to ju, but much more sure
Det blir visst bra väder imorgon The weather's going to be good tomorrow (as I'm sure you've also heard)
A: Vad gör bandets sångare nuförtiden?
B: Han sitter visst i fängelse nu.
A: What is the band's singer doing nowadays?
B: He's in jail now (as I'm sure you've heard)
dock
Implies an exception to the usual or expected. Similar to though. Can often be replaced by men (but)
Svenskar brukar inte ha några problem med engelska, vissa samtalsämnen är dock svåra för dem Swedes don't usually have any problems with English; some topics for conversations are hard for them, though
Jag klipper mig oftast en gång i månaden, den här månaden har jag dock inte haft tid Most often I get my hair cut once a month, but this month I haven't had any time (=an exception)
Jag tycker att det är tråkigt att köra bil. När jag har musik på är det dock roligare I think it's boring to drive. When I have music on, it's more fun, though
tro?
This is short for tror du? = do you think? and is attached at the end of a sentence. It sounds rather old-fashioned; most people would just say tror du?
Kommer det regna inatt, tro? Is it going to rain tonight, do you think?
Kommer han hem idag, tro? Is he coming home today, you think?
bara
It means only/just
A: Vem är det?
B: Det är bara jag.
A: Who is it?
B: It's just me. (I)
Hon är bara ett barn She's just a kid
A: Vad gör du?
B: Jag tittar bara på tv.
A: What are you doing?
B: I'm just watching TV.
A: Hur gammal är hon?
B: Hon är bara fem.
A: How old is she?
B: She's only five.
It can also mean as long as
Bara du hör av dig, så kommer jag As long as you get in touch, I'll be there
Bara han kommer imorgon, så är det nog lugnt As long as he comes tomorrow, it'll (probably) be fine
It is often used to soften imperative forms, to make them sound more polite, especially with question intonation
Stäng bara dörren? Go ahead and close the door
alltså
It means well
Alltså, han sa ju att han skulle komma imorgon. Well, he did say he that he would come tomorrow.
that is; I mean  
Jag träffade honom igår, alltså Olle. I saw him yesterday - Olle, that is.
in other words  
Du ska ju köra bil senare, du borde alltså inte dricka. You're going to be driving later; in other words, you shouldn't drink.
so, therefore  
Jag har tappat min biljett och måste alltså gå hem. I've lost my ticket, and (therefore) have to walk home.
It is often just tagged to the beginning end of a sentence as a filler (similar to um, you know, etc.)
Alltså jag orkar inte med honom You know, I don't feel like dealing with him
eller hur?
right, isn't it?
Han skulle komma imorgon, eller hur? He was going to come tomorrow, right?
I know, right?
A: Han kan vara så förvirrande ibland
B: Eller hur
A: He can be so confusing sometimes
B: I know, right?
nejmen, nämen
Expresses surprise. It can also express a feeling that something is silly or ridiculous. (Both versions of the word are the same and vary from person to person)
Nejmen! Fredrik, är du här?! Oh wow! Fredrik, you're here?!
A: Hon vägrar svara på mina sms
B: Nejmen vad dåligt
A: She refuses to answer my text messages
B: Well that's lame
jamen
Similar to okay well
Jamen då får han skylla sig själv Ok well then he should blame himself
Jamen varför försöker han ens? Ok well why does he even try, then?

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