Some basics of Swedish grammar
Nouns
Swedish nouns (things) have two genders, which are shown by the articles en and ett:
a car en bil  
a house ett hus  
There are some obscure rules about when to use en and when to use ett, but you needn't worry about them. As your Swedish improves, you will just naturally remember which one to use. In this course, all ett-words are in orange, to help you remember them.
the car bilen  
the house huset  
The noun gets a suffix in the definite form (an addition to the end of the word). Think of the suffix as a 'definite form maker' instead of as the word 'the'.
Possessive pronouns: min & mitt
my car min bil  
my house mitt hus  
my cars mina bilar  
my houses mina hus  
Adjectives (descriptive words)
singular indefinite common: a big car en stor bil
singular definite common: the big car
John's/my big car
den stora bilen
Johns/min stora bil
plural indefinite common: big cars stora bilar
plural definite common: the big cars
John's/my big cars
de stora bilarna
Johns/mina stora bilar
singular indefinite neuter: a big house ett stort hus
singular definite neuter: the big house
John's/my big house
det stora huset
Johns/mitt stora hus
plural indefinite neuter: big houses stora hus
plural definite neuter: the big houses
John's/my big houses
de stora husen
Johns/mina stora hus
These changes of pronouns and adjectives are called inflections.
Swedish has only these 3 inflections (2 in singular based on gender, and 1 for plurals and definite forms). [see more on adjectives]
Subject-verb agreement
Swedish has only one form of the verb for each tense.
I am Jag är  
We are Vi är  
She is Hon är  
to be (past):
I was Jag var  
We were Vi var  
She was Hon var  
to sleep:
I sleep Jag sover  
We sleep Vi sover  
She sleeps Hon sover  
Helping verbs
Swedish does not use do and be as helping verbs in the way that English does:
Do you speak Swedish? Pratar du svenska? (Talk you Swedish?)
Do you have children? Har du barn? (Have you children?)
Do you smoke? Röker du? (Smoke you?)
He does not smoke Han röker inte (He smokes not)
Continuous tenses:
Are you walking? Går du? (Walk you?)
She is singing Hon sjunger (She sings)
I am eating Jag äter (I eat)
Negation
Is formed with inte (not)
Jag pratar inte svenska I don't speak Swedish (I speak not Swedish)
For those who didn't pay attention in school:
noun: a thing (a car, a book, a cat)
verb: an action (to speak, to walk, to write)
adjective: a descriptive word (beautiful, big, red)
pronoun: stands in place of a person or a thing (I, you, he, it, they, my, mine, yours, myself, him, etc.)



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